Do you know, there were 12,420 different disease and health-related ailments according to the World Health Organization (WHO) as of 2011. This information surprised me a lot. Thanks to medical science that protects us from all these diseases. Due to today’s lifestyle and environment, our immune system is not so strong to fight the viruses and the bacteria.
There are some common diseases all over the world. Malaria is one of them which is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) report, the combination of AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis is responsible for half of all infectious-disease deaths each year. The WHO estimates that in 2015 there were 214 million new cases of malaria resulting in 438,000 deaths. Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide.
What is Malaria?
Malaria is a life-threatening parasite disease. It is transmitted by the infective bite of female Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites, the parasite is released into your body. Once the parasites are inside your body, they travel to the liver, where they mature. After several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood cells. Within 2-3 days, the parasites inside the red blood cells multiply and they continue to infect red blood cells.
Malaria affects more than 500 million people annually and results in anywhere between 1 million and 3 million deaths. Malaria is the second-most-common infectious disease around the world and it certainly is one of the most deadly on an annual basis.
Sign and Symptoms of Malaria:
The sign and symptoms of malaria typically develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. In some cases, symptoms may not develop for several months.
Sign and symptoms of Malaria are:
- A sensation of cold with shivering
- High Fever
- Profuse Sweating
- Abdominal Pain
- Muscle pain
- Bloody Stools
Treatment of Malaria:
If Malaria is detected, start treatment as early as possible. Treatment aims to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the bloodstream. The most common antimalarial drugs are Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and Chloroquine phosphate. There’s no vaccine available to prevent malaria.
ACTs are, in many cases, the first-line treatment for malaria. There are several different types of ACTs. Each ACT is a combination of two or more drugs that work against malaria parasite in different ways. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat uncomplicated malaria.
How to protect from Malaria:
- Keep your place neat and clean
- Wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants
- Spray an insecticide or repellent on clothing
- Apply insect repellent to exposed skin
- Use a mosquito net over the bed
Where Malaria Occurs:
Malaria occurs mostly in poor tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Climate such as temperature, humidity and rainfall is a key factor for malaria. It determines both the geographic distribution and seasonality. Without sufficient rainfall, mosquitoes cannot survive, and if not sufficiently warm, parasites cannot survive in the mosquito. Malaria is transmitted in tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
Temperature also has a critical role in malaria. If the temperature is below 20°C (68°F), Plasmodium falciparum which causes severe malaria cannot complete its growth cycle in the Anopheles mosquito, and thus cannot be transmitted. At very high altitudes, in very cold areas, and in deserts; malaria transmission does not occur. Africa and South Asia are the most affected areas.