Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne a tropical disease which is spread by female mosquitoes of the Aedes (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. These mosquitoes also spread Zika, Chikungunya, and other viruses. These types of mosquitos are usually live between the latitudes of 35° North and 35° South below an elevation of 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) and more than 110 countries are affected with Dengue and mainly in Asia and South America. Dengue is a fast emerging pandemic-prone viral disease in many parts of the world. Each year around 400 million people are infected with 18-20 percent hospitalized and about 20,000 deaths. They typically bite during the early morning and in the evening time. Now Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War. A vaccine for dengue fever has been discovered and approved. It is commercially available in a number of countries. The disease, also called ‘break-bone’ fever.
Aedes mosquitoes typically lay eggs near standing water in containers that hold water, like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, or flower pots but humans are the primary carrier and host of the virus. It can’t be spread directly from one person to another person. Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of female Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue virus. The mosquito becomes infected when it bites a person with dengue virus in their blood. When a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites a person, the virus enters the skin together with the mosquito’s saliva. It binds to and enters white blood cells, and reproduces inside the cells while they move throughout the body. The virus circulates in the blood of an infected person for 2-7 days.
A pregnant woman who has dengue, have a higher risk of miscarriage as well as low birth weight and premature birth as she passes the virus to her a fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth.
Symptoms of Dengue:
Symptoms of Dengue usually begin 2-7 days after infection and last for up to 4-10 days after the bite from an infected mosquito. The symptoms are:
- High fever (40°C/ 104°F)
- Severe headache
- Pain behind the eyes
- Nausea, Vomiting
- Swollen glands
- Muscle and joint pains
- Severe abdominal pain
- Rapid breathing
- Bleeding gums
- Blood in vomit
- Fatigue, restlessness
Treatment of Dengue:
There is no specific treatment for dengue fever as Dengue is a virus although a vaccination for dengue fever has been approved and available in many countries. In Dengue, you should take rest and intake plenty of fluids because a high fever and vomiting can dehydrate the body. Painkillers and paracetamol can help lower fever and ease pain but it is advisable to go to Doctor at the earliest.
Prevention from Dengue:
- Clean the place around you. No water should be stagnant. Removing stagnant water where mosquitoes can lay their eggs
- When outdoors and indoor also, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks
- Try to avoid being outside at dawn, dusk, and early evening
- Use insect repellent
- Use Mosquito traps and nets
To do all these things, you not only save from Dengue, but also you save from chikungunya and Zika viruses because these Aedes mosquitos also the carrier of the same.